Italian violin school style
From decline of violin to birth of violin, and then to present development and prosperity, violin art has a long history. It not only follows natural law of development of bowed string instruments, but also reflects political, economic, technological and cultural life of each historical period and is perfect embodiment of more and more mature artistic achievements. In history of violin art, whether it was “first technical” Italian school, “strict and meticulous” German-Austrian school or French school of “equivalent artistic and technical accent”, “spectacular” performance techniques have always been main ones. general persecution.
The so-called Italian school is a generic term for several schools named after Italian cities. These are mainly Roman school, Venetian school and Padua school. Originating in late 16th century, it dominated Europe for 200 years. Its formation and development can be divided into two stages:
From introduction of violin until end of 16th century, violin was mainly used for dance and vocal accompaniment, so Italian school used a wide and continuous bow to express violin singing in early days. The representative of Corelli (A. Corelli, 1653～1713), he analyzed and developed various bow techniques for playing violin, strove for a balanced form and vital content in creating music. The content of his works is often borrowed from folk melodies and dance music. For example, a folk song common in Spain and Portugal was adapted by him in violin solo work "Follia", which has long been famous.
Another musical image of Corelli is in form of church sonatas, majestic and tragic emotions are often found in works of this type. Subsequent generations once spoke of him: composer Corelli and master Corelli are an interdependent whole, and both of them have made great efforts to firmly establish noble classical style of violin art. This style not only reflects deep content of real life, but also has a harmonious and perfect form, it is not only full of Italian passion, but also has rationality, completely controlled by logic. At that time, Bolognese, including Corelli, did not play violin in a range not exceeding third position. Corelli's students were Pietro Locatelli (1695–1764), Giovanni Battista Somis (1686–1763) and others. Soames spread Roman school to north, founded Piedmontese school, known for its "splendid archery technique", and had a direct influence on French school.
The Venetian school is full of folk works, improvised and descriptive in performance and creativity, in stark contrast to serious, elegant and noble style of Roman school. Vivaldi is a bright representative of this style. He opened recital in true sense of Baroque era. Tools, nand which he plays solo are now ruthless, now virtuosic. The fast and continuous movement of sound pattern sometimes gives way to a rich melody, and sometimes gives way to melodic music.
The Italian school has reached a late stage, and ancient skill of violin playing can no longer meet needs of development of time. The idea of national liberation in Italy has surged, and people begin to pursue magnificent and brilliant sound, excellent and changeable skills. Paganini is representative of this period and is recognized as most influential performer of Italian school. The “24 Caprices” created by him “brilliantly combine rich imagination and brilliant performing skills, and are still highest model for learning to play violin. They are full of new melodic devices that break routine, new and unexpected modulations, rich chromatic sequences. , sharp harmonics, rhythmic pulsations and cuts are all elements of a new musical language, as well as characteristics, various speed changes, etc., all these are typical signs of romantic instrumental music.
Paganini gave complete freedom to play musical instruments in terms of performing technique. Among violin techniques he developed, bowed innovation is most unique. Various finger stretches, tuning changes, left-hand playing, and use of single and double overtones are clearly dependent on guitar playing technique. 2/3 of works in "24 Caprices" are written in 6/8 time, filled with features of Italian folk music. Nos. 7 and 15 are written in Sicilian rhythms, but they are different in character, first is resolute and firm, second is soft and steady. In first half of 20th capriccio, an idyllic melody is played against a continuous bagpipe-style bass background, a common stylistic feature of Italian folk music of time. There are even more works that directly use Italian folk songs or variations on themes of Italian operas, such as Carnival of Venice, Excitement, Balukaba Variations, etc. It is clear that his creative source comes from folk folk.
Variation is one of characteristic basic techniques of Italian folk improvisational art, and this technique became for Paganini most important means of discovering a new romantic content. He not only expanded field and scale of variational form, but also enhanced its dynamic changes and contrast.
Lyricism, self-narration and a personal-psychological image - these are features of romantic music of early 19th century - all this is reflected in work of Paganini. Even Paganini's contemporaries of Fabiist school, such as Rhodes, Kreutzer, Berio, and Hermann Spohr, strongly opposed use of short and jump bows, as well as overtones. They feel that this makes game superficial and unbearable. At same time, in technique of left hand, he also stipulates principle of natural posture - four steps and an octave hwa.t, uses only middle range of violin, and considers high range to be a lack of softness and expressiveness. Paganini completely overcame these limitations and opened up a huge world for "singing" performance.
So it was eventually replaced by a school that put more emphasis on musical thoughts and feelings. But innovative contribution of Italian school to formation, development and enrichment of violin art is indelible.
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