Basic Knowledge of Music Theory Required for Music Students
The basic knowledge of basic music theory is that composers create music, just like writers write poetry and novels, there is a system of expression and expression, that is, musical language. The musical language includes many elements: melody, rhythm, beat, speed, dynamics, range, timbre, harmony, polyphony, mode, tonality, etc. The ideological content and artistic beauty of a musical work can only be expressed through various elements.
[Melody] Also known as a melody, this is a line of sound composed according to a certain relationship between pitch, length and strength. This is most important means of forming image of music and soul of music.
[Rhythm] The ratio between duration and strength of each sound as it is played. Since sounds of different pitches are also sounds of different lengths and strengths, rhythm must be included in melody.
[Beat] Uniform alternation of strong and weak beats. There are many different combinations of beats called "beats" and normal rhythm is performed on a certain beat.
[Speed] The degree of speed. In order for music to accurately express expressed thoughts and feelings, work must be sung or played at a certain speed.
[Strength] Strength. Changing intensity of sound also plays a very important role in shaping musical image.
[Sound Zone] The upper and lower range of sound. Sounds in different registers have different functions and characteristics in expressing thoughts and feelings.
[Voice] Sound characteristics of different human voices, different musical instruments and different combinations. Through contrast and change in timbre, expressive power of music can be enriched and enhanced.
[Harmony] Two or more tones are combined at same time according to certain rules. The strength and weakness of a chord progression, stability and instability, consonance and dissonance, striving of unstable and dissonant chords towards stable and consonant chords constitute functional system of harmony. The harmony function directly affects strength of force, density of rhythm and magnitude of power. In addition, harmony sound effect also has a chiaroscuro and density difference, so that harmony has a color transfer function.
[Polyphony] Simultaneous combination of two or more melodies. The simultaneous combination of different melodies is called contrast polyphony, and consecutive imitation of same melody, separated by a certain elbow, is called imitation polyphony. The use of polyphony techniques makes it possible to enrich image of music, enhance impulse of musical development and independence of voices, and create effect of one call and one fall.
[Mode] A series of tones made up of high and low tones used in melody and harmony in musical compositions. These sounds are related to each other and keep a certain trend. Key is pitch of central tone (tone) of a mode. In many pieces of music, transformation and contrast of mode and key are important means of reflecting changes in atmosphere, color, emotion, and image.
Different elements of musical language interact with each other to have ever-changing expressiveness. Although melody is soul of music, if other elements change, then musical image will change to varying degrees. Under certain conditions, other elements may even play an important role.
Voice and tone
Sound is created by vibration of an object. There are many sounds in nature that can be perceived by our human ears, but not all sounds can be used as musical material. The sounds used in music are specially chosen by people in order to express their lives, thoughts and feelings during many years of industrial struggle and class struggle. These tones add up to a fixed system, which is used to express musical thoughts and form musical images.
A sound has four properties: high and low, strong and weak, long and short, and timbre. The pitch of a sound is determined by number of vibrations (frequency) of an object in a certain period of time. The more vibrations, higher sound, less vibrations, lower sound.
The duration of sound is determined by duration of sound. The duration of sound is long, sound is long, duration of sound is short, sound is short.
The strength of sound is determined by magnitude of amplitude (amplitude of vibrational range of sound). The larger amplitude, stronger sound, smaller amplitude, weaker sound. The timbre differs due to nature, shape and overtone of pronunciation body.
The above four properties of sound are very important for musical performance, but pitch and duration are more important. Take song “Socialism is good” as an example, whether you sing with human voices or musical instruments, whether you sing in an undertone or loudly, although strength and timbre of sound has changed, it is still easy to recognize this melody. However, if you change pitch or value of this song, musical image will be immediately severely damaged. Therefore, whether it is creativity, performance or singing, special attention should be paid to height and meaning.
Due to regularity and unevenness of vibrational state of sound, sound is divided into two categories: musical sound and noise. Tone is primarily used in music, but noise is also an integral part of musical performance.
In our national music, use of noise has a very rich expressive ability. For example, in opera music, with assistance of other artistic means of expression, percussion instruments play a very obvious role in shaping image of characters, expressing various thoughts and emotions, which is a very distinctive part of world musical culture and worthy of attention. We study and study well.
The sound we normally hear is not a single sound, but a combination of many sounds. Such a sound is called a compound sound. The formation of complex sounds is due to fact that sounding body (for example, a string) vibrates not only as a whole, but also its individual parts (half, third, quarter ... etc.). separately and at same time. The sound produced by vibration of entire part of pronunciation body is called fundamental tone, which is most audible sound, and sound produced by vibration of each part of tate pronunciation, called an overtone. These sounds are difficult for our ears to hear.
The sum of fixed pitch sounds used in music is called a tone system. The tones in musical tone system are arranged in ascending or descending order, called tone columns.
The piano clearly shows notes and sequences used in musical tone system. The largest piano now includes eighty-eight different sounds. Other sounds are almost never used in music.
Each tone in musical tone system is called a tone level. There are two kinds of sound levels: base sound level and variable sound level. In system of musical tones, seven tones with independent names are called fundamental tones. The sound played by white keys of piano corresponds to main scale.
The name of main sound level is indicated in two ways: alphabetic and nominal. The fifty-two white keys on piano use seven main mode names in cycle. Two adjacent tones with same name are called octaves.
A sound produced by raising or lowering main sound level is called a sound level change. The base tone level is marked "sharp" or "#" if raised by a semitone; to indicate - "heavy fall" or "bb".
In German system, suffixes are used to indicate level of sound being changed: is (sharp), es (flat), isis (double sharp), eses (double flat).
However, es is used instead of Ees for E-flat, as is used instead of Aes for A-flat, b is used instead of hes for h-flat.
As mentioned earlier, fifty-two white piano keys repeatedly use names of seven major scales, so many tones with same name are created in sound sequence. For each sound, we divide sound sequence into many "groups".
The group in center of audio sequence is called small character group, and its audio level markers are represented by lowercase letters and number 1 in upper right corner, such as c1d1e1, etc.
The groups above first small character group are named in order: second small character group, third small character group, fourth small character group, and fifth small character group. The sign of second group of small characters is represented by lowercase letters and number 2 at top right, for example c2d2e2, etc. The remaining groups are displayed in turn.
The groups below small character group are called small character group, large character group, large character group, and second large character group. The signs of each small group sound are represented by lowercase letters without numbers, such as cde and so on.
Large characters are marked with uppercase letters without numbers, such as CDE, etc. A group of large characters are marked with uppercase letters and number 1 at bottom of spaceava e.g. C1D1E1 etc.
The second group of large characters is marked with capital letters and number 2 at bottom right, for example, A2B2, etc.
There are two types of vocal range: general range and range of individual voices or musical instruments.
Total vocal range refers to overall range of a sound sequence, that is, distance from lowest to highest note (C2-c5).
The range of an individual voice or musical instrument refers to part that can be reached over entire range, for example, range of a piano is A2-c5. The audio range is part of audio range and comes in three types: high range, mid range, and low range. In whole range, small group of words, small group of words and small group of words two belong to middle range. The third small symbol group, fourth small symbol group, and fifth small symbol group belong to high frequency region, and large symbol group, one large symbol group, and second large symbol group belong to low tone. region. The separation of different human voices and different musical instruments is often incompatible. For example, a high bass range is a low alto range. The characteristic timbre of each register plays an important role in musical performance. The high tone region usually has characteristics of a clear, loud and punchy sound, while low tone region often gives people a thick and bulky feeling.
Clef, staff, temperament
As mentioned above, higher position of sound on staff, higher sound, and vice versa, lower position of sound, lower sound, but how much higher is it? How much lower? I can't be sure. To determine pitch on a staff, it must be marked with a clef. This kind of clef is written on a specific line of staff, which makes that line fixed by level name and pitch, and also defines level name and pitch in other lines or spaces.
There are three most commonly used keys:
G clef means a small group g, written on second line of staff, called treble clef; in addition, there are those written on first line, called old French treble clef.
The F clef is letter f in small letters, which is written on fourth line of staff, called bass clef; in addition, it is recorded in fifth line, called double bass clef.
The C clef is a small group of C notes that can be written on any line of staff.
The C clef currently in use is three-line C clef (alto clef) for baritone violin and sometimes trombone. The C clef (tenor clef) is used for cello, bassoon and trombone. Other C keys are generally used less frequently.
The purpose of using a large number of keys is to avoid too many lines and to make it easier to write and read musical notation. Various clefs can be used individually or together, such as a large staff made up of treble and bass clefs.
The five parallel horizontal lines used to write musical notes are called staves.
The five lines of staff and gaps formed by five lines are calculated from bottom to top. If a piece of music is written on several staves, then these staves must be linked with keys.
A clef consists of two components: a leading line (the vertical line connecting staves) and brackets (the brackets connecting staves).
There are two types of brackets: floral and straight. Curly braces are used to refer to piano, organ, accordion, harp, cymbals, pipa, and other musical instruments.
Straight lines are used to represent ensemble, choir, and orchestra. In score, straight lines connect same instruments and divide them into complete or incomplete groups of instruments. Sometimes auxiliary brackets (curly or straight) are added to straight brackets to connect same tool.
In a score, if a solo part includes only one or two lines of staves, only opening line is drawn on left, with no trailing lines. To indicate too high or too low a tone, many short lines are added above or below staff, which are called extensions.
The space created by adding a lithe space above staff is called plus space, and space below it is called bottom space. Added line and added area calculation method: top added line and top added room are calculated from bottom to top, and bottom added line and bottom added room are calculated from top to bottom.
The absolutely exact pitch of each tone in system of musical tones and their ratio is called temperament. Temperament is formed in process of long-term development of musical practice and becomes basis for determining height of fret.
During course of historical development, various methods have been used to determine pitch of each tone in system of musical tones. There are three kinds of "twelve laws of equality."
Now "law of twelve equals" is widely accepted by countries all over world. However, "pure law" and "law of mutual generation of fifth degree" continue to be influential and of great importance in musical life.
Twelve equal laws, five degrees of mutual generation speed, pure speed
Temperament, which divides an octave into twelve equal parts - semitones, is called twelve equal temperaments.
Twelve laws of equality were proposed in ancient Greece, but not scientifically calculated. It was Zhu Zai (Tu Yu), great Ming Dynasty musician in my country (1854), who was first in world to formulate twelve equal temperaments based on mathematics.
Semitones are smallest distance between twelve equal temperament notes. The distance between two tones, equal to two semitones, is called a whole tone. There are twelve semitones in an octave, that is, six whole tones.
At middle of main sound level of a sound sequence, with exception of E to F and B to C, which are semitones, distance between two other adjacent tones is a whole tone.
On a piano, two adjacent keys (including black keys) form a semitone, and two notes separated by a key form a whole tone.
The law of five degrees of mutual generation
According to ratio between second and third parts of compound sound, that is, starting from a certain sound and raising a pure fifth, a subform is obtained, and then subform is pushed to a perfect fifth. Uniformity is produced again, rhythm thus determined is called fifth step, and rhythm thus established is called intergenerational rhythm of fifth degree.
For example, ratio of pitch between seven fundamental levels of sound set forth in law of five degrees between generations is different from ratio of pitch between seven fundamental levels of sound in twelve equal temperaments.
Although there is also a semitone between EF and BC, it is smaller than semitone in twelve equal temperaments. Although there are also whole tones between remaining two adjacent tones, they are larger than whole tones in twelve equal temperaments. This difference in pitch is due to difference in method of law.
Pure temperament consists of adding a fifth as a rhythm element to form a chord form, in addition to second and third tones that are used to form an interdependent fifth degree temperament. This leads to seven main pitch classes.
According to ratio of pitch of main tone levels in pure temperament and interdependent temperament, it differs from ratio of pitch between main levels in twelve equal temperaments and interdependent temperament of fifth degree. Its semitones between EF and BC are larger than those of other two temperaments. There are two kinds of whole tones: CD, FG, and AB are major tones that are equal to whole tones in coherent temperament of fifth degree and larger than whole tones in twelve equal temperaments. ED and GA are small whole tones that are smaller than whole tones of other two temperaments.
We briefly talked about mmethods and results of different legal systems, but why do different methods and laws produce different results?
To illustrate this problem, let's now take e1 as an example and use pure law method and five-power law of reciprocal generation to perform calculation.
We know that pure temperament is based on second, third and fifth complex tone as elements of rhythm, that is, ratio of vibration of major third of pure temperament should be 5/4. Knowing ratio of number of vibrations, it is very easy to obtain number of vibrations of a sound from ratio of number of vibrations.
The law of coexistence of fifth degree is based on second and third subtones of compound sound, which are continuously generated with each other according to ratio of perfect fifth (3/2). Regarding twelve equal temperament, we know that it divides octave into twelve equal parts. Therefore, except for first degree and octave, pitches of remaining temperaments are different from pure temperament and five-step interdependent temperament.
The three temperament systems have their advantages in practical application. The law of interdependence of five degrees is based on pure law of fifth degree, so it is natural and harmonious in combination of tones, and is suitable for monophonic music. Pure temperament is based on law of natural triads, so it is pure and harmonious in combination with chord sounds and is suitable for polyphonic music.
However, with development of multi-part music, frequency of modulation and difficulty of reproducing pure temperament of keyboard instruments are severely limited. The twelve equal temperaments are not as pure and natural in terms of consecutive and simultaneous combination of tones, but because they are easy to carry and have many advantages in playing and making keyboards, they have become widespread in last century.
Natural midtone and natural full tone, midtone change and whole tone change
A semitone formed by two adjacent sound levels is called a natural semitone. Natural semitones can be formed by a fundamental sound level, or a varying sound level, or a fundamental sound level and a varying sound level. A whole tone formed by two adjacent levels is called a natural whole tone. A natural overall tone, like a natural semitone, can be formed by main sound level, or by changing sound level, or by changing sound level of main sound level. A semitone consisting of two different shapes of same level is called a semitone. The change in semitones can be generated by base pitch level and changing pitch level, and can also be generated by changing pitch level. A whole tone composed of two different forms of same sound level or separated by a sound level is called a change whole tone. A variation whole tone may be formed by a root pitch level and a variation pitch level, and may also be formed by a variation pitch level and a variation pitch level. A natural semitone and an altered semitone, a natural whole tone and an altered integral tone, are two semitones and whole steps with completely different properties and should not be confused. Pure temperament consists of adding fifth tone as a rhythmic element to form chord form, in addition to second and third tones, which are used to form law of interdependence of fifth degree. This leads to seven main pitch classes. According to pitch ratio of main sound levels in pure law of temperament and intergenerational law, it is different from pitch ratio between main sound levels in twelve equal temperaments and law of intergenerational law of fifth degree. Its semitones between EF and BC are larger than those of other two temperaments. There are two kinds of whole tones: CD, FG, and AB are major tones that are equal to whole tones in coherent temperament of fifth degree and larger than whole tones in twelve equal temperaments. ED and GA are small whole tones that are smaller than whole tones of other two temperaments.
We've briefly talked about methods and results of different legal systems, but why do different methods and laws produce different results? To illustrate this problem, let's now take e1 as an example and use pure law and law of five powers of mutual generation to perform calculations. We know that pure temperament is based on second, third and fifth subtones of compound tone as rhythmic elements, that is, ratio of vibrations of major third degree of pure temperament should be 5/4. Knowing ratio of number of vibrations, it is very easy to obtain number of vibrations of a sound from ratio of number of vibrations. The Law of Five Stepsis based on second and third subtones of compound sound, which are continuously generated according to ratio of perfect fifth (3/2). Regarding twelve equal temperament, we know that it divides octave into twelve equal parts. Therefore, except for first degree and octave, pitches of remaining temperaments are different from pure temperament and five-step interdependent temperament. The three temperament systems have their own strengths in practical application. The five-step law of mutual generation is based on pure law of fifth degree, so it is naturally harmonious in combination of sounds and is suitable for monophonic music. Pure temperament is based on law of natural triads, so it is pure and harmonious in combination with chord sounds and is suitable for polyphonic music. However, with development of many-part music, frequency of modulation and difficulty of reproducing pure temperament of keyboard instruments are severely limited. The twelve equal temperaments are not as pure and natural in terms of consecutive and simultaneous combination of tones, but because they are easy to carry and have many advantages in playing and making keyboards, they have become widespread in last century.
Additional notations for commonly used notations such as equiphonic and extended tones
Sounds with same pitch but different meanings and designations are called enharmonics. The enharmonic comes from twelve equal temperaments, because enharmonic is only possible when semitones are equal.
With exception of two sound levels #G and bA, any other base sound level and change sound level can have two higher tones, even three original ones. And bA and #G have only one anharmonic, and even itself has two anharmonics.
Additional marks to increase value of sound
The notation, in addition to applying base note value, also uses some other symbols to increase pitch value. These characters are:
— a small dot on right side of note, with a note with a dot, duration of original note increases by 1/2, with a note with two dots, duration of original note increases by 1/2 three quarters. Dots also apply to pauses. If dotted note head is in staff gap, dot is placed next to head; if it is on line, dot is placed above or below line.
When used on two or more notes of same pitch, this means that they must be sung in one tone, and its length is sum of these notes.
In monophonic music, ligatures are always written in opposite direction of stems. If two voices are written on a row of staves, connecting line of high voice part bends up, and connecting line of low voice part bends down. If there are more than two votes, then connecting lines are written on both sides.
Its sign is to add a dot in middle of semicircle. In monophonic music, it is written above notes and rests, indicating that notes or rests can be freely enlarged according to style of piece and intent. player time value. In polyphonic music, an extension may also be written under a note or a rest. The bar line can also be written with continuous marks indicating a momentary pause between bars. An extended sign written on a double vertical line indicates end of music or end.
The characters used to indicate an increase or decrease in pitch are called diacritics. There are five types of diacritical marks: The sharp sign (#) means that main sound level rises by a semitone. Flat (b) indicates lowering base note by a semitone.
A double sharp (×) means two semitones (a whole step) up from base note. Double flat (bb) means lowering base note by two semitones (a whole tone). The restore mark (ヰ) means restoration of a pitch that has been raised or lowered.
Accent marks can be written on lines and spaces of staff, they can be written before notes and behind clefs. The random characters that follow key are called key signatures. Before changing a new key, it applies to all tones with same phonetic name in tone list. If key signature needs to be changed in middle of music, there can be three situations. If a key change occurs at beginning of a musical line, at that time key to be changed must be clearly written at end of previous musical line, and last bar line must be brought forward. write down new key key signature. Increase number of original sharps or flats. At this time, simply write key of new melody to right of bar where key has been changed.
Reduce number of original sharps or flats. At this time, it is necessary to restore extra random marks on left side of barline where key signature has been changed. Write key of new key to right of barline.
Change sharp to flat or flat to sharp. At this time, it is necessary to restore original stress mark on left side of bar line where key was changed, and write a new key on right side of bar line.
Activities immediately before an annotation are called accidentals. Random marks are only valid for sounds of same pitch and only up to nearest bar line. In multi-part music, random marks are often only valid for one part. To remind of cancellation of accidental signs used earlier, one more accidental sign is sometimes added after barline.
For convenience and ease of reading and writing notations, various ellipsis can be used:
Use 8--∣ to write at top of staff, and write it at top of staff, indicating that sound within dashed line's range is shifted up an octave; use 8--∣ to write it below staff, indicating that it is an octave down.
Use number 8 above or below a note to indicate that note should be repeated an octave up or down. If an octave is repeated over a long period of time, use Con8--∣ to mark it at top of a note, or use Con8--∣ to mark it below a note, which means tone inside dashed line should be repeated octaves higher or lower.
Long rest marker
Place a long rest on third line of staff and write number of bars before pause.
means a note or chord, and two notes or two chords alternate quickly and evenly. Mark with a slash. The number of slashes is equal to number of hooks.
When a note or chord alternates rapidly and evenly, slash is indicated as follows: for whole note tremolo, note ongoes over third line, slash is written under third line and vice versa. conversely For a tremolo less than a whole note, slash crosses stem. If stem has a flag, slash is parallel to flag. At this time, number of slashes must include number of flags. The total duration of tremolo is equal to duration of note. When two notes or two chords alternate quickly and evenly, a slash is written between two notes or two chords near end of note. The total duration of a tremolo is equal to one of two notes or two chords.
Repeat marks can be used when a piece of music is repeated in whole or in part.
Playback method sign
The designations for playback methods are as follows:
It is marked with a connecting line, which means that tones of different pitches in connecting line should be played (sung) in a coherent way.
There are three types. They are marked with dots (·), triangles (▼), and dots and arcs, respectively, indicating that certain notes or chords should be played intermittently. In monophonic music, staccato marks are usually written on side of notehead. When two voices are written on a row of staves and do not use same stem, they are written in opposite directions.
Sustained tone method
There are two ways to play a continuous tone, one is represented by a short horizontal line and other is represented by a short horizontal line plus a dot. Those who indicate that sound is played a little stronger and each sound is slightly separated. The continuation sign is same as staccato sign. In monophonic music, it is usually written from direction of note head, and in polyphonic music it can be written in opposite direction.
In performance and singing of folk music, method of performing portamento is very peculiar, and its marks are usually indicated by curves or arrows. An up-sloping curve or arrow to right indicates an upward slide, and a downward-slope curve or arrow to right indicates a downward slide.
Fast playing of notes in a chord from bottom to top is called an arpeggio and is indicated by vertical curves in front of chord, sometimes by small notes.
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