How to improve left hand violin skills? -Sladik "Practice of playing violin with left hand"
Over past hundred years, many practical works have appeared in world aimed at improving these basic skills, among which is "The Practice of Playing Violin with Left Hand" written by Hermann Schradek (1846-1918) (three books in total), she plays very an important role in development of violin playing skills with left hand. From a special point of view, this book most fully develops left-hand violin playing technique and is an excellent teaching aid and "treasure book" for professional violin teachers and students to quickly improve left-hand playing skills. How to correctly interpret this "treasure" has become shortest way to improve left-handed skills. It is a pity that, on one hand, teachers and performers in our country dream of drinking and looking at “flying” fingers, and on other hand, they do not want to meditate and engage in daily hard work. Music-making alone cannot systematically, strictly regulated and purposefully improve finger technique. Ignore them, result often backfires.
Sladkic's "Left Hand Violin Practice" begins with second string (A string), one string at a time, one position in turn, each finger, each group of fingers, and then with a double tone and chord. orderly and regular manner, very systematic and comprehensive. It can be said that all possible arrangements and combinations of fingers of left hand are involved and arranged in violin technique. In other words, if you perform these exercises accurately, easily and intelligently, as well as quickly, then there will be practically no serious problems with function of left hand.
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1. Finger Technology
1. The first is raising and lowering fingers. The raising and lowering of all fingers should follow principle of working with root joints. The height of lift should be close to top of first knuckle of fingers. Consistency in raising and lowering each set of fingers. When falling, position of point of contact of left half of fingertips with strings must be precise and fixed, as well as elastic and strong.
2. For shape of hand, four fingers should form as straight a line as possible and be above strings. Those who wait over strings should keep in a straight line, which is good hand shape. Usually students make mistakes in this area or don't pay attention to maintaining this good hand shape, for example, 4 fingers tense, away from strings, or when pressing 3 fingers, 4 fingers "go down" and 1 finger straight up, etc. This will directly hinder dexterity of finger movements. Due to these irregular hand shapes, there will be an equal difference in distance between fingertips and ra strings.fingers when pressing strings, which will cause a difference in time strings are touched. A good hand shape is formed by long, strict and correct exercises. At beginning, forearm naturally turns inward a little, (Note: Remember that position of elbow remains unchanged, and you cannot use elbow to turn inward to make room for 3 or 4 fingers. Position form hands.) Let knuckles of 3rd and 4th fingers be a little closer to neck, while keeping in mind that knuckles of 3rd and 4th fingers should be higher than neck. Then fingers 1 and 2, especially finger 1, are pulled back so that four fingers line up in a straight line, with thumb facing fingers 1 and 2 on other side across string, and tiger's mouth is naturally relaxed. and opened. 4. Keep your fingers as smooth as possible when lifting and lowering. In terms of natural physiological structure of human body, 4th and 3rd fingers are weaker than 1st and 2nd, so after 4th finger forms a straight hand shape, center point of balance should be slightly shifted in side of 3rd and 4th fingers. fingers This will increase control and strength of 3rd and 4th fingers, and balance physiological differences with 1st and 2nd fingers. There may be some tension or discomfort at beginning of practice of hand form, especially for some students who have difficulty in this area, this should be done step by step, paying maximum attention to relaxing mind and muscles. . When changing handlebars, it is very important to maintain dynamic shape of hand, which is also basis of precision and speed.
Secondly, ability to work
The relationship of eye, brain and hand. From very beginning, it is necessary to “make” practitioners see four notes when looking at notes, then eight, sixteen, and so on, and when they see this, these notes should be displayed in their minds. instruct finger operation to complete these notes. If it is broken or incorrect, have students first think about which link is incorrect and then work to fix it. After careful training, eyes, brain and hands are well connected, and accuracy and speed will naturally increase. Accelerating speed should be set within control range of eyes, brain and hands, if it is exceeded, then it is most likely just some kind of inertial behavior that is not conducive to ability training, and can also leave bad marks. , Endless trouble. As for speed of learning, it can be slow at first and then fast, but it depends on ability of students at that time, usually it should be at medium speed. The bow method may begin with an eight-note bow, then a bar bow, and then move on to actual bow method specified in book, which should also be determined according to student's current ability. Through such exercises, abilities of performer will be greatly improved. When I studied pedagogypsychology in our country, I found that I could not mention problem of ability with students in many places, but I think that in music, especially in field of playing musical instruments, ability is decisive, and ability improves with proper training and practice. One of objectives of our training is to increase efficiency of students, therefore, a direct appeal to topic of increasing abilities of students is inevitable.
There are a few common problems that come up during practice that need to be addressed.
1. Steering wheel change, too many unnecessary movements when changing steering wheel. This problem has historical roots. For a long time in past violin education in our country was influenced by too many "former Soviet" theories and its misunderstanding and playing. actual effect of changing crank is placed in a secondary position, which creates obstacles to continuity and accurate synchronization between sound and sound when crank is changed. Since author has studied and worked in Western Europe for a long time, I am deeply touched by this moment. The change of rudder must follow principle that intervals of each position can be related more naturally and accurately to value of time. Less movement is better, clearer, more natural, more fluid and more connected to main points of pursuit. In this finger exercise, if above points can be done well, goal of speed can be achieved.
Secondly, intensity and progress of exercise. Everything has two sides, and exercise of fingers of left hand is like a double-edged blade. If this is not done well, then you will hurt yourself. 1. The top and bottom of fingers must be flexible and must not be tapped with "dead force". 2. The formation of hand shape is completed in stages, and it is formed within reasonable range of its own physiological structure, final fixed shape of hand should be more natural and free. 3. The intensity of exercise must be mastered. If arms or hands hurt, you must immediately stop, relax and rest, and in no case rush forward. There were many examples of bad hands in 1950s and 1960s. The intensity and acceleration of exercise should be done gradually and based on relaxation.
3. Stick to intonation and good pronunciation. As long as sound is being played, there must be a requirement for pitch and pursuit of a healthy and pleasing sound quality. Especially in two-tone practice, harmony of tonality and pitch is very important. The author has always called and insisted on purity of temperament and tonality in order to unravel knot of incompatible pitch in Chinese musical performances (especially ensembles).
Four. Rhythm. Rhythm is divided into measures and rhythms. Bars are a combination of duration of each note. In this exercise, it mainly appears in 16th notes, which is relatively uniform.bottom. All operations are performed in time, such as different combinations of notes, changing knobs, changing strings, etc. We can take help of a metronome. At beginning, regardless of speed, fast or slow, we must act under exact prompt of metronome. We must strive for accuracy of time value between notes, i.e. let's say time value of 16th note is equal to mean. There are practically no rhythm changes in this exercise, such as speed, slowdown and relaxation.
5. Finger coherence, independent and mobile lifting and lowering of each finger, is first step in our practice, but not final goal. Clear and consistent finger movement is our highest goal, which includes two aspects of finger technology and performance mentioned above.
Six years. Age. The sooner you start exercising, more opportunities to improve finger function and greater benefits. Who wouldn't want to be good with their left hand since childhood? But, just like scribbles on a blank slate break at beginning, if you do not pay special attention to rationality and consistency of teaching methods at beginning, it will bring great harm in future. Destructive pain.
The technique of playing violin is based on an understanding of physiology and psychology. That is, a person adapts to external environment and transforms it, relying on activity of nervous system, that is, on patterns of reflex arcs established on basis of scientific principles of unconditioned and conditioned reflexes. And state in conditioned reflex is actually external, that is, it is formed day after tomorrow. This is technique, method, and measures I have described above. Through long, patient, precise, and intelligent repeated practice, a strong conditioned reflex circuit is established, and notes, violin, and person unite to control violin playing with ease.
Dazzling finger movements, breathtaking musical combinations, shocking performance skills, on one hand, an innate talent and function, we have nothing to change and choose, and on other hand, in acquired training, on other hand, there are more opportunities for our work. Although final level reached by each person is different, but after persistently reaching it, it will bring satisfaction and comfort in the harvest. Sladkic's correct, intelligent and unremitting left-hand violin practice will bring you dazzling and flying left-hand violin skill.