Violin radian changes
Data from 17th and 18th centuries show that high-bow violins of Jakob Steiner from Tyrol and Amati family from Cremona were mainstream at time. All documents prior to 1800 mention Stainer and Amati series pianos. In 17th and 18th centuries most violin making in Italy, Austria, Germany, France, England and Netherlands were based on Steiner and Amati systems. The qin of this era often has a curvature of more than 25mm.
Research by Guarneri family shows that Hill brothers noted following: Steiner is undoubtedly most influential early maker in Italian violin world. This may be due to fact that violinists who returned to Italy used Stainer products, as did Medici and Mantua courts. “Even Guarneri del Gesu and Carlo Bergonzi are released sometimes. The only one who does not follow Steiner's trend throughout his life is Antonio Stradivari.
These documents indicate that Stainer violins are very attractive to violinists, for example: "Stainer violins will be popular mainly because of their piercing sound quality..." Probably no one but Lupot since 19th century can make same as Steiner.
Stradivarius, being a student of Niccolò Amati, has a lot of experience in making high-bow pianos, so he doesn't need "painting experience".
In 1868, Richelmet wrote: "The popularity of low-bow violins is a nightmare for many luthiers, but they can no longer turn tide." He made it clear that, from his point of view, reason violin takes a low radian is because string tension of old-style three- or four-hundred-year-old violins is very weak, and pitch is 1 lower than that of old-style violins. contemporary (1868, when he was in city) -1 / 2-2 deg. Obviously what Richelme is talking about is early Brescia violin industry. There is no standard specification, and size and curvature are very inconsistent. The curvature is often very small, and even size changed during 19th century.
Nineteenth and twentieth centuries
Most violins, with exception of German mass industry of 19th century, were made on basis of main styles of Stradivari in modern times with a maximum curvature of 15–18 mm. Generally speaking, so-called Guarneri style is actually equivalent to a slight change in waistline of Stradivari style and a major change in design of f-hole for master. International trends of century.
In practice, there is no difference between Stradivari and Guarneri in terms of curvature of modern violins, although there are a few notable exceptions for original instruments. The Guarneri (Gesu) piano became famous later than Stradivari, Guarneri did not become famous until people found out that Paganini used Gesu piano. His work is not outstanding, and his style is a bit inconsistent. There are only about 150 recordings of his works, some of which have not survived to this day.
Previous forPaganini's writings indicate that piano style of Gesus, such as Sibire, is unfamiliar to today's people. In fact, many ancient texts suggest that Gesu violins should be corrected, especially in thickness; we can believe that there are indeed many Gesu violins that have been corrected in this way. Guarneri violins, records are incomplete, and details of original specifications have not been preserved at all. In view of this, when a craftsman wants to make a Guarneri model, if he does not have an original Guarneri violin to use as a model, he can only compare Stradivari model, because Stradivari information is more detailed.
After Viotti, worldwide appreciation of Stradivarius violins changed and low curvature violin was modified to a new specification that is more successful than high curvature violin modified in early nineteenth century; therefore, modern music industry prefers a piano with a small curvature.
Bending affects strength of top plate, so violin design must take curvature into account in accordance with structural considerations. The radian also determines some characteristics of resonance and sound transmission, and these factors are closely related to overall sound effect. In violin design, radian is one of many important factors, but it is ignored by modern scientific researchers.